## Basics of bath ergonomics

In fact, there is only one specific room in the bathhouse; all the rest can be considered as analogues of well-known residential premises. Therefore, here we will only talk about **the steam room.**

So, what is a steam room and how is the space organized in it?

Most often we are dealing with a steam room **, either Russian** or **Finnish** . They are different. They differ not only in temperature and humidity conditions, but also in the methods of achieving them. This means that **the same oven** most likely (not always, but often) will not be enough to reproduce both modes. **ventilation** **shelf** designs differ **.**

In addition, the volume of the room is heated **non-uniformly;** can be distinguished **.** The dimensions of these zones and the temperature in them depend on the convection of heat flows, and it is determined by the location of the ventilation holes.

But you will find a lot of material about this on our website; we have covered each topic in detail for both types of baths. If we talk about **ergonomics,** then its subject will be human convenience, determined by the anatomical characteristics of a person.

Or we can say this: ergonomics solves the question of how to adapt furniture and other surroundings to our anatomy. Because sitting, lying down, bending over, squatting, etc. It’s convenient for us only if our **dimensions** and **capabilities are taken into account.**

This diagram shows how people usually sit or lie in a bathhouse. You can see that **the minimum width of the seat** should be at least 40 cm, and 60 cm deep is enough to sit comfortably leaning against the wall. The seat depth of 90 cm is already enough to sit on it with your legs tucked under you.

So, **the Finns** would have made three tiers of shelves with a width of 40 cm per “step”. Consequently, the depth of their shelves would take up only 3x40 = 120 cm. Its length would vary depending on the size of the room and the number of people in the steam room.

Why would they do this? Because **in a sauna it is customary to sit on a shelf, and not lie down.** They sit and sweat, that’s the whole bath procedure. The temperature reaches 70-90 degrees, humidity - 5-15%.

They pour very little water onto the stones, the steam is thick, like from a kettle, and the ventilation works in such a way that there is always something to breathe - oxygen constantly arrives from the ventilation and is quickly heated by the stove.

**In a Russian bathhouse, shelves 40 cm wide are not suitable** . Because it is customary to lie on it. And the other person should float while lying down. **The minimum usable width is 60 cm** .

But it’s better to start from the size between the paired’s arms, which are freely lying along the body. Only in this case will he really be comfortable lying down. **ADVICE!** Measure these dimensions for the widest of the frequent visitors to your bathhouse and make shelves according to it.

**A Russian shelf** is a lounger, often two-level, the first level of which can be used as a step for a person floating, or can be a seat. Therefore, it can be narrow - 30-40 cm in depth. And the second level is just wide, under a lying person. Its length, of course, should be appropriate - 180-220 cm.

Shelves in a Russian bath

You may be attracted to options with footrests, but here you need to proceed from the specifics of your bath; try to calculate this option yourself.

**On a note!** There are many other materials on our website that clarify various nuances regarding steam rooms. You may be interested in learning about the structure of the Russian steam room, its design, the layout of the bath space as a whole, the optimal dimensions of the steam room, as well as its finishing - lining, processing, insulation, the features of electrical wiring and flooring.

## Necessary furniture for a bath

### Rest room (dressing room)

The dressing room should look spacious, and the furniture should be arranged so as not to block the passage to another room.

If this is a separate room, then there are no restrictions on the choice of furniture material. And if it is combined with a shower room, preference should be given to moisture-resistant raw materials with a minimum of textiles.

Often, wooden furniture decorated in country, chalet, and Provence styles is placed in the bathhouse.

For small rooms, a folding table, benches or stools, as well as wooden kitchen corners are suitable.

If there is space, you can put a leather sofa with armchairs and a glass table in the relaxation room, and a rocking chair near the fireplace.

### Steam room

The main furniture of the steam room is shelves.

They are made from wood, mostly hardwood. They do not contain resins, which heat up at high temperatures and can cause burns.

The following lumber is well suited for creating shelves:

- linden;
- aspen;
- alders;
- oak

The shelves should be such that it is comfortable to sit on them.

The recommended sizes are as follows:

- length - from 1.4 to 2 m;
- width - 40-150 cm;
- distance from the floor to the bottom shelf - 20 cm;
- from the top shelf to the ceiling - at least 1 m.

The shelves can be arranged in different ways:

- Steps. Along the wall in two or three tiers.
- In the shape of the letter G. The first and last bench are attached to one wall, the middle one to the side. Plus the coupe principle - two shelves go above each other, the top one rises.

The photo above shows examples of different fastenings for shelves in a steam room.

## The relationship between area and number of people soaring

The owner of the bathhouse usually has an idea of how many people in the steam room would be most acceptable for him, but usually it is still **from 2 to 5 people** , then something like a “public bath” begins. At the same time, this does not impose any real restrictions on the number of guests in your bathhouse - if there are more of them, then they will steam in “shifts.”

In essence, the steam room is designed for the usual number of steamers. But taking into account the fact that the steam room should not be too large - not only for reasons of economy. It is important to find **a balance** between the power of the stove, the volume of the room, ventilation (in a sauna), and the quality and quantity of steam (in a Russian bath).

## Conclusion

The results of the calculations are transferred to the steam room project.

If we summarize all of the above, it turns out that the minimum size of a bathhouse for 4 people, consisting of three rooms, should be 360x380 centimeters. If you decide to combine a steam compartment with a washing room. Then the minimum dimensions of the bath should be 210x400 centimeters.

The video included in this article will give you additional insight into its topic.

## Optimal steam room sizes

### For 2 people

The size of a steam room for 2 people also depends on how exactly they are going to steam. For example, they can only sit on a shelf, then the steam room can generally be tiny. You remember that for a person sitting, 40-60 cm in depth is enough.

**IMPORTANT!** The distance from the stove to the shelf can be found in the instructions for the latter, but we will assume that it will not be less than half a meter.

There should also be **a gap between the stove and the wall,** and the wall itself should be protected **by a heat insulator,** let’s give it all 10-15 cm. Therefore, 60-75 cm should be added to the dimensions of the stove, considering that this space is occupied. Let's assume that the oven is 50 by 70 cm. Therefore, it will occupy **a “spot”** of 110 by 130 or 125 by 145 cm.

**The shelves** will occupy 40-60-90 cm in seat depth; if they are in two levels, then we multiply them by 2, if three - by 3. They are rarely made the same, so add up the values that you have in mind.

Another option is when there are two people in the steam room, **one lies down, the second parries him.** Then a shelf 70-90 cm wide and foot rests 30 cm wide are sufficient. A step is needed because the shelf being steamed should be 5-10 cm higher than the top edge of the stove.

So we calculate that for two people sitting, the width of the shelves will be 80 cm, if there are two levels. For one lying and one floating - 100 cm. Plus the “spot” of the stove (depending on how it is positioned).

**ON A NOTE!** They try not to leave empty space on the floor of the steam room. It is better to make the shelves wider if there is a lot of unfilled space.

The third option is when people **are just lying down** , then the size of the steam room increases. For each person lying down you need 200-220 cm in length and 70-90 cm in width.

Below we show two example diagrams, try making your own based on them:

The optimal size of the steam room is for 2 people sitting.

The same for those lying down.

Note that in the latter case, if the person is not too tall, he can be safely hovered from the bottom step if he lies perpendicular to the position drawn here.

### For 2-3 people

If you are hesitating, not knowing how many people you will most often have in the steam room, and are calculating in your mind the size of the steam room for 2-3 people, then we advise you **not to do** the “one and a half option” - there seems to be room for a third, but it is not full-fledged and everyone will have to make room a little. Why is this necessary? Make a competent calculation of the size of the steam room for 3 people, do not add anything - you will get a normal steam room that will not increase your costs too much.

### For 3 people

Will one of those in the steam room steam the other? Or will all three sit as if in a sauna?

Based on the fact that **one person sitting** needs at least 70 cm in width, therefore, two people sitting next to each other are 140 cm, three people are 210 cm. You can arrange the shelves in a corner so that two people sit on the long side and one on the short side.

If you make a very wide shelf, then three steamers can be located on it as shown in the diagrams below:

The optimal size of the steam room is for 3 people.

In this situation, the top shelf is more intended for lying with bent legs. If you want to stretch out to your full height, then the following scheme is more suitable for this:

Dimensions of the steam room for 3 people.

**ADVICE!** If you try to arrange the figures perpendicularly, then this shelf length of 180 cm will not suit everyone, so be guided by the height of the tallest of the regular visitors to your bathhouse.

Please note that in these diagrams there is practically no space allocated for the stove; more precisely, it is almost identical to its own area. **Only stoves for which the instructions allow such close placement of the shelves can be installed this way** . For example, these could be electric furnaces.

**IMPORTANT!** But this does not apply to ordinary iron ones! To make shelves close to such a stove, they must be separated by at least a brick screen or a screen made of heat insulator. Or the entire oven should be in a stone or brick lining.

### For 4 people: drawing

By reading the text above, you have already learned how to calculate the amount of space for a seated person. He needs an area of 40x70 cm so as not to feel cramped and on a narrow perch. Distribute these 280 cm (4x70) shelf lengths yourself in a way that is convenient for you. But remember that this is **seated only** .

The area that we allocate for one person lying down is 200 (220) cm x 60 (90) cm (in the first case, focus on the tallest, in the second - on the fullest visitor to the steam room, although 90 cm is recommended by all lovers of the Russian bath). It is clear that you are unlikely to be able to install four sunbeds with such parameters.

Consequently, the more people are planned to be allowed into the steam room at the same time, the greater the likelihood that they will only be able to sit there. But in the case of 4 visitors, there is one good option: **two steamers and two steamers** . Then you will have two sunbeds 90 cm wide. But in this case, the size of the steam room for 4 people will be large.

Optimal dimensions of a steam room for 4 people: drawing.

For seated visitors, a shelf 150 cm long for a couple of people and a total width of 80 cm is enough. Place such shelves **parallel** to each other (as shown above for wide shelves) or **in a corner.**

### For 4-5 people

Below you see two schemes designed for a maximum of 5 people in a steam room. Of course, one or two people can steam there, but the capacity is considered to be maximum.

It is clear from the diagrams that in the first case we again show the structure of the sauna - **no indentations from the stove are visible,** but look how compact it turned out! 2x2 is the standard size of a steam room, but here it’s even smaller and can fit 5 people!

Steam room size for 4-5 people.

There is an upper wide shelf of 90 cm, on which people sit with their legs tucked up and perpendicular to the shelves of 60 cm of the same level. Plus two levels below, highlighted in other shades of brown.

In the second case, we can already talk about a Russian bathhouse, if the stove is **enclosed** and there is an indentation. The shelves are wide, you can comfortably lie down on them; if they are high, you can pull out benches from below. The size of the room, of course, has become larger, but this is inevitable.

## Washing room parameters

Washing area with shower for four visitors.

- Based on the design of the bathhouse, tanks with cold and hot water or a shower stall and a small pool can be installed in the washing room.
- In any case, the minimum dimensions for washing are determined. For four users, a standard room without a pool and shower must have sides of at least 200x210 cm.
- The stove can be placed in two rooms at once. Its firebox can be in the sink, and the heater can be in the steam compartment. A stove tank for heated water should also be located in the washing room.
- The sauna stove must be large enough to heat the steam room and prepare the required volume of boiling water. Thus, a compact heater with metal walls is capable of heating a steam room with a volume of 18 m3 and heating up to 70 liters of water. This is quite enough to serve four users simultaneously.
- The steam room should be separated from the washing room by a solid partition with a door.
- You can install windows in the sink. They must be placed at a height of at least 140 cm from the floor level. It is better if it is not the wall opposite the entrance to the room. Otherwise, drafts will be created. Window units should not be too large. The optimal size is 50x70 cm.
- The door to the washing room can be installed to an almost standard size - 180x80 cm. The threshold must be made high so that drafts do not pass through the floors.
- If you are not bothered by the additional price of the equipment, then you can place showers in the sink. At a minimum, each of them will occupy an area of 90×90 cm.
- If you want to build a pool, keep in mind that the washing volume will increase.

## Useful video

But this video simply talks about the structure of a Russian steam room, but it tells it so kindly that we simply couldn’t resist bringing it to your attention